Archives for posts with tag: haute couture

Triangle factory, photo in workshop of shirtwaisters

The 8th of March has just been and gone. Pre-packed sprigs of yellow mimosa in the supermarket and tacky adverts…. I have never liked this ‘celebration’ of women. It’s sad and, yes, even slightly insulting. But I am bringing the topic up because I have been thinking about – and wearing – white shirts quite a lot recently. The link of course is the Triangle factory fire in New York city back in 1911.

On the 25th of March that year the blouse (or ‘shirtwaist’ as they were then known in the States) factory that we can see in the image above, went up in flames. The doors were closed, the workers locked in. 123 women died and 23 men. A tragedy. Many of these women were immigrant family bread-winners. Their death sparked unionist and female political activism across America and beyond. The 8th of March is dedicated to them but sadly few women today are aware of this.

The shirtwaist was worn by all women at the turn of the century. Rich and poor alike. The two young women below were approximately the same age but even the simple blouses reflect the very different social status and economic possibilities.

J.Singer Sargent, Alice Vanderbilt Shepard,1888,Amon Carter mus texas

John Singer Sargent, Alice Vanderbilt Shepard, 1888, Amon Carter museum, Fort Worth, Texas, USA

Pelizza da Volpedo,Dolore, Acc Car Berg

Pelizza da Volpedo, Suffering, 1900c, Accademia Carrara, Bergamo, Italy

In fact, the simplicity of the white blouse caused sartorial difficulties in certain respects: it was wonderfully modern and easy, you could match it up with anything. It was democratic, plain cotton for everyone. But in the world of haute couture this was not always a good thing. Distinction was needed. And this, in terms of the white blouse, came via the use of lace. White lace blouses had the same ‘function’ as the cotton ones but they were obviously more dressy and definitely more expensive – and suitably delicate for the ladies of leisure of the Belle Époque.

camicia pizzo di Vernon, Scandinavia, 1915-17c

Vernon lace blouse, 1915-17c, Scandinavia

 

Some were in between on the social scale there were

female students:

Mrs Gray s group,1909,McCord mus

Canadian female students, 1909, McCord museum Canada

Actresses:

opuscolo settimanale,1902,Fondo Gnecchi

tumblr_lwv280UAe31qj185so1_500

 

And sporty types:

divided skirt for cycling, USA 1900c

American lady in blouse and divided cycling skirt, 1900c

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Lady paddling or rowing, 1900c

But who started off such a wide-spread and long-lasting fashion? It all began in the 1850s and not up, or down, but in the middle. The white blouse is one of the most sensible middle class inventions ever!

It was first worn by middle class teenage girls under jackets (often in velvet) and with a silk skirt. This would have been part of a ‘set’ comprising different bodices for different occasions. This was a mix and match concept. A clever way to get good use out of a silk dress, an ‘investment’ buy in those days. In the image below, the girl on the left wears her rust coloured silk taffeta skirt with a black jacket and the white blouse. (The skirt seems too long, but that is just because she is not wearing her wide, fashionable crinoline as she is in the countryside visiting her friend).

W.Gale, The confidante, 1857, Tate B

W.Gale, the confident, 1857, Tate Britain, London UK

Older generations soon followed: by the 1860s the blouse was worn by most women on a daily basis. In hot climates and on very informal occasions such the one in the image below, the ladies would remove the jacket of their two-piece suit (a concept straight from the male wardrobe – but that’s another story)

S.Lega, Il canto di un stornello,1867, Pitti

 

Silvestro Lega, the song, 1867, Pitti gallery, Florence, IT

In the two portrait below we can see how the blouse was also worn under the one-piece dress. The reason for this is practicaityl: hygiene (the white cotton blouse would soak up the sweat and could be soaped and boiled up innumerable times. Women had several of them).

foto,Amalia Oieri,CRAA

Italian lady, 1860c

P.A.Renoir, donna 1868

 

A.Renoir, woman in the garden, 1868c, Kunstmuseum, Basel, Switzerland

The model in the Renoir painting was Lise Tréhot, a dressmaker. She probably made her own white blouses! And here she is in a photo wearing a white blouse

Lise_Tréhot_in_1864, model for A.Renoir, dressmaker

(For more on the white blouse see my post from October 1914 on World War I fashion)

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John French, Susan Abraham in John Cavanagh lace evening dress, spring 1957

Photo John French, model Susan Abraham in John Cavanagh lace evening dress, 1957

The combination of black and white in fashion has always attracted  attention. What I find interesting is the timeless appeal of the two opposites, whichever way you combine black and white in clothing, it is always to a striking effect. Spring is in the air and  B & W is the hot trend in fashion right now. So Fashionarchaeology.com wishes to welcome the new season with a post to  celebrate the ultimate colour combination.

A.Durer,autoritratto a 26 anni,1498,prado

Durer, self-portrait age 26, 1498, Prado museum Madrid, Spain

Men’s fashions have not been immune to the lure of the black/white combination. We find examples from Renaissance Italy, but it is the German artist Durer who wears it in the most compelling way at the end of the 1400s. Durer was an extraordinary character. His self-portraits  (which he executed at regular intervals throughout his life) were always intense and challenging, and I imagine his choice of clothing or ‘look’ for each picture was carefully thought out. This white jacket with black trim and sleeve detail is certainly eye-catching, as is the floppy striped hat and the black and white plaited rope holding his cloak across his bare skinned chest. The outright sensuality of this outfit and the way it is worn remains  intriguing 600+ yeas on.

Fra Galgario, gentiluomo 1730c, brera

Fra Galgario, Italian gentleman, 1730c, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan Italy

Less sensual but equally fascinating is the coat worn by this Italian gentleman from the first half of the 1700s. At a time when pastel colours – as dictated by French taste which was closely emulated in Italy – were the dominant trend for upper class gentlemen, this mat black coat with intricate, rich late baroque embroidery in silvery white is worthy of note.

Goya, Pepito Costa y Bonells 1813 met

F.Goya, Papito Costa y Bonells, 1813, Metropolitan museum of art, New York  USA

Again a coat of black with silver embroidery for this very young Spanish gentleman. Flaunting the latest fashion for children, (the idea of putting children in adult clothing had been swept away by Jean Jacques Rousseau’s forward thinking philosophy some decades earlier) he wears a little jacket, the sombre black colour being set off by the white silk high-waisted trousers and the lace trimmed collar of his shirt.

The ultimate black and white combination for men came with the invention of the evening suit by George Brummel in London at the turn of the 19th century. The first official dandy (as decreed by Lord Byron) wanted English gentlemen to smarten up and wear different clothes at different times of day. He declared that black was the perfect colour for night, as long as always worn with freshly pressed white linen (shirt and cravat). White gloves and a black top hat completed the look.

J.McNeill Whistler, Theodore Duret, 1883, Met

McNeil Whistler, Theodore Duret , 1883, Metropolitan museum of art, New York USA

Black and white clothing does have a less glamorous side to it too. Until recent times, the close members of the family of a deceased person (man, woman or child), would adopt mourning clothes for a period of time after the death of the loved one. The ancient Greeks did it, as did the Romans, continuing in Europe  throughout the past centuries. By the 1800s this tradition was so consolidated that etiquette books were written on the subject giving all the information necessary as to what colour should be worn, for how long etc. Fashion magazines always had pages dedicated to the topic and often included fashion plates representing mourning dress. This implies that it was acceptable to look ‘fashionable’ during the time of bereavement and there was no shame in dedicating time, care and money to looking nice at such a terrible time in one’s life. Today we would call this a form of ‘Fashion therapy’ I suppose.

Eighteenth and Nineteenth century fashion plates for mourning dress show total black for the first period of mourning, followed by black and white combination for the second period of mourning. Often it is difficult to tell whether a b/w outfit is mourning or simply fashion.

mourning outfit, paris

French fashion plate, 1780s, Paris, France

Il corriere delle dame,  moda d'italia,  1808

Il Corriere delle Dame, 1808, Italy

Le Journal des dames et des Modes, 1830

Les Journal des Dames et des Modes, 1830, Paris, France

journal des demoiselles, agoust, 1867

Journal des Demoiselles, august 1867, Paris, France

And then there is black and white for the sheer  pleasure of it. The strength exuded by the next few images speak for itself:

Correggio, lady,1517-19.Hermitage,  St.Pet

Correggio, Lady, 1517-19c, Hermitage museum, St Petersburg,  Russia

partrait of a lady, french, Bonhams

French school, lady, 1560c, Bonhams UK

Alathea Talbot, countess of Arundel and Surrey, 1605c

British school, Alathea Talbot countess of Arundel and Surrey,1619c, Ingestre Hall, UK

A.Renoir, Il palco, 1874, Court. gal lon

A.Renoir, box at the theatre, 1874, Courtauld Institute of Art, London, UK

corset, 1905c, museum of decorative arts, Prague

Corset, 1905, museum of decorative arts, Prague, Czech Republic

Worth, abito ballo, 1898-1900, CI Met

C.F.Worth, ball dress, 1890s Paris, Metropolitan museum of art, New York USA

bozzetto Lanvin,1929

Jean Lanvin, 1929

Ladies Home Journal, 1958

Ladies Home Journal, 1958, USA

Vogue Foale e Tuffin,wool suit,1964         Foale e Tuffin,wool suit,1964,VA

Vogue UK, Foale and Tuffin suit, 1964 (suit in Victoria and Albert museum, London UK)

Karl Lagerfeld for Chanel,AI 1991-92

Karl Lagerfeld for Chanel, 1991-2, Paris

 

 

 

 

 

 

Picture 29107

La Gazette du Bon Ton, cover by George Lepape, cape by J. Lanvin, 1923

No_61_Mark_Rothko

Mark Rothko

Blue goes well with more blue….different shades together are intense, sensual and powerful.

Horst P. Horst Vogue USA,fashion ed Babe Paley,1946

Horst P. Horst, Babe Paley, 1946

Horst P. Horst is here using tones of blue to give depth and a sense of intrigue to his portrait of one of the most powerful women in New York just after the second World War, Babe Paley, Vogue USA’s feared fashion editor.

But blue works well with a number of colours (see my previous post on blue and red), in some cases muted shades such as green, give a light spring/summer feel to an outfit

Derwent Lees,girl in black hat,1912,NGVictoria

Derwent Lees, Girl in black hat, 1912, National Gallery of Victoria , Australia

Electric blue and grey are dynamic and work well for this child’s dress from 1918, but this colour combination would not be out-of-place on today’s catwalk

Bernard Meninsky,child in blue,1918,pc

Bernard Meninsky, Child in blue, 1918, pc

Blue and any acid colour has a stunningly fresh effect, catching our attention every time

Blue and orange:

beckmann-autoritratto-in-giacca-blu-1950,St Louis Art mus

Beckmann, self-portrait in blue jacket, 1950, St Louis Art museum, USA

Or blue and yellow:

Ethel Spowers, skaters, 1931 Bonhams

Ethel Spowers, skaters, 1931 (Bonham’s, London, UK)

mark rothko

Mark Rothko

Mme Gres, sleevless dress, 1968 with overcoat, met ny

Mme Grès, maxi dress + coat, 1968, Paris, Metropolitan Museum of Art , NY, USA

Mme Gres, sleevless dress, 1968

the dress

Mme Gres, sleevless dress, 1968 back, met ny

the back of the dress

Yellow also works splendidly with a greener shade of blue:

feather tunic, 7th-10thC, feathers sewn on cotton fabric,MET NY

Feather tunic, Peru, 7th – 10th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, USA

man shirt,embroid damask

Man’s short sleeved cotton Bazin top with yellow embroidery, west Africa, 21st century

Jeffrey-Campbell-shoes-Lita-(Blue-Green)-010604

Jeffrey Campbell shoes, USA, 21st Century

journal des dames et des modes, moda femminile,1913

Journal des Dames et des Modes, Paris, 1913

This post wants to investigate the ‘rise’ (literally) in fashion of the collar for women during the period 1913-18. As we saw in the last post, by 1914 the negative effects of the war had driven French fashion designers to invent a new style and to promote it assiduously in the hope of reviving interest,  sales and more importantly, an industry which gave work to 1000s of people.

28830-elizabeth-branly-1916-elegant-parisienne-hprints-com

La Baionnette, 1916

The new  war silhouette, with its full but short skirt was young and dynamic, cheeky yet elegant .  Corsets had practically been forgotten, replaced by more comfortable brassieres. The waistline positioned slightly above natural level. The collar of coats, jackets and blouses became a new focal point: rising up high to frame the neck, elongating the line from head to bust. The new haircuts – kiss curls framing the face while the long tresses were pulled up high behind the head to look like they had been cut (that was only happening in the most bohemian of circles around 1915).

Paquin, manteau de ville, 1915

Les Modes, Paris, 1915

These high rise collars were particularly suitable for winter fashions. They stood high thanks to a stiff lining or, as we can see above, thickened by the addition of fur. They framed the face perfectly and kept the neck warm.

They remained popular for several years.

Alvaro Guevara,Mrs Fairbairn Nancy Cunnard,1919,NGV Melbourne

Alvaro Guerara, Mrs Fairbairn (Nancy Cunnard), 1919, N.G.A. Melbourne, Australia

There was something masculine in this way of pulling the collar up around the ears, maybe yet another influence from uniforms to be seen everywhere in Europe during those years. The heavy, thick wool greatcoats buttoned right up and worn with the collar turned up for extra protection from wind and rain.

australian soldier, WW I

Australian soldier, WW I

WAAC army auxiliary corps, greatcoat wiith fur collar

WAAC  – female army auxiliary  corps, WW I,  in wool greatcoat with fur collar

More masculine/feminine fashion contaminations in the images below:

cover les modes

Les Modes, Paris, 1915

28872-piere-colombier1918-aviator-la-panne-au-chateau-airplane-breakdown-hprints-com

La Baionnette, 1918

The shirt or blouse for women of this period deserves a closer look too. It had remained popular from the previous decade but  was totally revised in shape. New influences were at work on the imagination of the designers.  The blouse, which  had of course existed for decades (since the 1850s to be precise) now also became an interesting mix of feminine and masculine.

Premet, 1914 L.M.

Les Modes, Paris, 1914

The collar was wide and kept well open, supported beneath by the stiff collar of jacket or coat. When worn with a light fabric dress only it was probably starched stiff and well ironed into shape.

E.L.Kirchner,Erna e Gelda, 1913c

E.L.Kirchner, Erna and Gelda, Germany,  1913

The earlier blouse was distinguished by its femininity denoted by plenty of lace and ruffles. The neck was closed in as it was not proper to show skin during the day.

hairstyles

Journal des Demoiselles, Paris, 1900c

At the same time though, it must be noted that a new kind of female was emerging, the educated middle class young woman who worked. She was more likely to wear a ‘masculine’ style shirt + tie. She was after all claiming her new space in a male centered society.

Mrs Gray s group,1909,McCord mus

Female student,s 1909, Canada

By 1914

Lewis, 1914 L.M.

Les Modes, Paris, 1914

The new blouse was not mimicking men’s fashion. It was taking its linearity and transposing it into the feminine sphere. A perfect blend to represent the new generation of women to emerge from a devastating war, when for the first time they will be expected to ‘wear the trousers’ in a Europe that will have lost most of its young men.

camicia pizzo di Vernon, Scandinavia, 1915-17c

Vernon lace blouse, 1915-17c, Scandinavia

att John Bettes,Queen E I,1580-86,NPG

Att. John Bettes, Queen Elisabeth I, 1580-6c, National Portrait Gallery, London, Uk

The fashion for feather fans spread across Europe by the last quarter of the 16th Century. Queen Elisabeth I, in England, had a great number and it is very likely that they came, via fairs and merchants, from Italy – Venice, Milan and Genoa had specialised in this kind of luxury item made up of part local craftsmanship and part imported exotic materials.

By the following century feathers were not only added to accessories but had also become part of  textile iconography

brocaded silk for clothing, peacock feather patern, 1600-1620c, V&A

peacock-feather patterned silk brocade, italian, 1600-20c, Victoria and Albert museum, London, UK

Feathers continue to appear in textile patterns up to present day.

The silk below is typical of the rococo period – small delicate flowers and soft feathers rather than the stiffer, more regimented baroque ones above

Rococo french silk, VEA

French dress silk, 1750c, Victoria and Albert museum, London, UK

In the 19th century feathers continue to be added to accessories such as bonnets and fans (still much in use, especially for the evening)

feather and stuffed bird fan with ivory handle, 1880s, V&A

Fan, feathers, stuffed birds and ivory handle, 1880c, Victoria and Albert museum, London, UK

but also gradually found their way – stitched, apliquéd, woven – onto and into fashionable clothing.

A hierarchy of plumage emerges: from the rare, exotic and therefore expensive feathers from South America or Far East, right down to the more mundane european varieties. The main difference was in the colours available. However with the introduction of chemical dyes in 1853 this problem was quickly resolved.

latvian feather short coat made of feathers, poss swan down, 1860c, met NY

Short outdoor lady’s coat, swan’s down, 1860s, Metropolitan museum, New York, USA

This extraordinary coat (because its made of worked feathers!!) is a perfect example of the levels reached by the new world of Haute Couture from the 1850s onwards. Designers and their Maisons would attempt to outdo each other by inventing the most intricate and exquisite details.

Emile Pingat Paris, mantle in wool, velvet, silk and osttrich feather trim, 1891c,LACMA USA

Emile Pingat, evening cape, 1891, L.A.C.M.A., Los Angeles, USA

Maison Emile Pingat is a wonderful example of the highest level Parisian fin de siecle haute Couture.  Several materials (silk, velvet, wool, metal thread, beads, feathers, lace and so on) were combined into unique pieces by the most creative and skilled craftsmen/women.

ma-1368550-WEB

detail

Emile Pingat Paris,evening mantle, wool silk metal and feathers, 1891c, Met NY

Emile Pingat, Paris, evening mantle, mixed materials including feathers, 1891c, Metropolitan museum, New York, USA

Arsenic_And_Old_Lace_Poster Some of you may be familiar with this war-time comic (well I found it comic) thriller by Frank Capra. OK I am not going to talk about this film at all. I just wanted to nab the title to make a sophisticated pun for those of you who know italian. What I want to talk about in this post is a an italian artist who totally grabbed the attention of FASHIONARCHAEOLOGY recently. I think you will understand why

Francesco Merletti, Vatalaro col., IT

Francesco Merletti, Vatalaro col., IT

MERLETTI means “lace” in italian. He only seems to paint one woman and her slightly bulging eyes are as unsettling as they are hypnotic. Merletti’s sense of style is wonderful – hats, gloves, shoes, all chosen with great precision. This artist is not just a talented painter but also a sophisticated communicator of fashion history. I think of Christian Dior and the uncompromizing glamour of early 1950s Haute Couture when I look at some  his work.

C.Dior, black velvet new Look robe manteaux, 1947,p.c.

C.Dior, velvet New Look robe manteaux, 1947,p.c.

Lilly daché hat,photo: E.Steichen for Vogue USA, 1946

Lilly daché hat,photo: E.Steichen for Vogue USA, 1946

http://www.magrorocca.com is his gallery in Milan where I believe he lives and works. Next time I will post his sculptures. Amazing!