Archives for posts with tag: Journal des Demoiselles

John French, Susan Abraham in John Cavanagh lace evening dress, spring 1957

Photo John French, model Susan Abraham in John Cavanagh lace evening dress, 1957

The combination of black and white in fashion has always attracted  attention. What I find interesting is the timeless appeal of the two opposites, whichever way you combine black and white in clothing, it is always to a striking effect. Spring is in the air and  B & W is the hot trend in fashion right now. So Fashionarchaeology.com wishes to welcome the new season with a post to  celebrate the ultimate colour combination.

A.Durer,autoritratto a 26 anni,1498,prado

Durer, self-portrait age 26, 1498, Prado museum Madrid, Spain

Men’s fashions have not been immune to the lure of the black/white combination. We find examples from Renaissance Italy, but it is the German artist Durer who wears it in the most compelling way at the end of the 1400s. Durer was an extraordinary character. His self-portraits  (which he executed at regular intervals throughout his life) were always intense and challenging, and I imagine his choice of clothing or ‘look’ for each picture was carefully thought out. This white jacket with black trim and sleeve detail is certainly eye-catching, as is the floppy striped hat and the black and white plaited rope holding his cloak across his bare skinned chest. The outright sensuality of this outfit and the way it is worn remains  intriguing 600+ yeas on.

Fra Galgario, gentiluomo 1730c, brera

Fra Galgario, Italian gentleman, 1730c, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan Italy

Less sensual but equally fascinating is the coat worn by this Italian gentleman from the first half of the 1700s. At a time when pastel colours – as dictated by French taste which was closely emulated in Italy – were the dominant trend for upper class gentlemen, this mat black coat with intricate, rich late baroque embroidery in silvery white is worthy of note.

Goya, Pepito Costa y Bonells 1813 met

F.Goya, Papito Costa y Bonells, 1813, Metropolitan museum of art, New York  USA

Again a coat of black with silver embroidery for this very young Spanish gentleman. Flaunting the latest fashion for children, (the idea of putting children in adult clothing had been swept away by Jean Jacques Rousseau’s forward thinking philosophy some decades earlier) he wears a little jacket, the sombre black colour being set off by the white silk high-waisted trousers and the lace trimmed collar of his shirt.

The ultimate black and white combination for men came with the invention of the evening suit by George Brummel in London at the turn of the 19th century. The first official dandy (as decreed by Lord Byron) wanted English gentlemen to smarten up and wear different clothes at different times of day. He declared that black was the perfect colour for night, as long as always worn with freshly pressed white linen (shirt and cravat). White gloves and a black top hat completed the look.

J.McNeill Whistler, Theodore Duret, 1883, Met

McNeil Whistler, Theodore Duret , 1883, Metropolitan museum of art, New York USA

Black and white clothing does have a less glamorous side to it too. Until recent times, the close members of the family of a deceased person (man, woman or child), would adopt mourning clothes for a period of time after the death of the loved one. The ancient Greeks did it, as did the Romans, continuing in Europe  throughout the past centuries. By the 1800s this tradition was so consolidated that etiquette books were written on the subject giving all the information necessary as to what colour should be worn, for how long etc. Fashion magazines always had pages dedicated to the topic and often included fashion plates representing mourning dress. This implies that it was acceptable to look ‘fashionable’ during the time of bereavement and there was no shame in dedicating time, care and money to looking nice at such a terrible time in one’s life. Today we would call this a form of ‘Fashion therapy’ I suppose.

Eighteenth and Nineteenth century fashion plates for mourning dress show total black for the first period of mourning, followed by black and white combination for the second period of mourning. Often it is difficult to tell whether a b/w outfit is mourning or simply fashion.

mourning outfit, paris

French fashion plate, 1780s, Paris, France

Il corriere delle dame,  moda d'italia,  1808

Il Corriere delle Dame, 1808, Italy

Le Journal des dames et des Modes, 1830

Les Journal des Dames et des Modes, 1830, Paris, France

journal des demoiselles, agoust, 1867

Journal des Demoiselles, august 1867, Paris, France

And then there is black and white for the sheer  pleasure of it. The strength exuded by the next few images speak for itself:

Correggio, lady,1517-19.Hermitage,  St.Pet

Correggio, Lady, 1517-19c, Hermitage museum, St Petersburg,  Russia

partrait of a lady, french, Bonhams

French school, lady, 1560c, Bonhams UK

Alathea Talbot, countess of Arundel and Surrey, 1605c

British school, Alathea Talbot countess of Arundel and Surrey,1619c, Ingestre Hall, UK

A.Renoir, Il palco, 1874, Court. gal lon

A.Renoir, box at the theatre, 1874, Courtauld Institute of Art, London, UK

corset, 1905c, museum of decorative arts, Prague

Corset, 1905, museum of decorative arts, Prague, Czech Republic

Worth, abito ballo, 1898-1900, CI Met

C.F.Worth, ball dress, 1890s Paris, Metropolitan museum of art, New York USA

bozzetto Lanvin,1929

Jean Lanvin, 1929

Ladies Home Journal, 1958

Ladies Home Journal, 1958, USA

Vogue Foale e Tuffin,wool suit,1964         Foale e Tuffin,wool suit,1964,VA

Vogue UK, Foale and Tuffin suit, 1964 (suit in Victoria and Albert museum, London UK)

Karl Lagerfeld for Chanel,AI 1991-92

Karl Lagerfeld for Chanel, 1991-2, Paris

 

 

 

 

 

 

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journal des dames et des modes, moda femminile,1913

Journal des Dames et des Modes, Paris, 1913

This post wants to investigate the ‘rise’ (literally) in fashion of the collar for women during the period 1913-18. As we saw in the last post, by 1914 the negative effects of the war had driven French fashion designers to invent a new style and to promote it assiduously in the hope of reviving interest,  sales and more importantly, an industry which gave work to 1000s of people.

28830-elizabeth-branly-1916-elegant-parisienne-hprints-com

La Baionnette, 1916

The new  war silhouette, with its full but short skirt was young and dynamic, cheeky yet elegant .  Corsets had practically been forgotten, replaced by more comfortable brassieres. The waistline positioned slightly above natural level. The collar of coats, jackets and blouses became a new focal point: rising up high to frame the neck, elongating the line from head to bust. The new haircuts – kiss curls framing the face while the long tresses were pulled up high behind the head to look like they had been cut (that was only happening in the most bohemian of circles around 1915).

Paquin, manteau de ville, 1915

Les Modes, Paris, 1915

These high rise collars were particularly suitable for winter fashions. They stood high thanks to a stiff lining or, as we can see above, thickened by the addition of fur. They framed the face perfectly and kept the neck warm.

They remained popular for several years.

Alvaro Guevara,Mrs Fairbairn Nancy Cunnard,1919,NGV Melbourne

Alvaro Guerara, Mrs Fairbairn (Nancy Cunnard), 1919, N.G.A. Melbourne, Australia

There was something masculine in this way of pulling the collar up around the ears, maybe yet another influence from uniforms to be seen everywhere in Europe during those years. The heavy, thick wool greatcoats buttoned right up and worn with the collar turned up for extra protection from wind and rain.

australian soldier, WW I

Australian soldier, WW I

WAAC army auxiliary corps, greatcoat wiith fur collar

WAAC  – female army auxiliary  corps, WW I,  in wool greatcoat with fur collar

More masculine/feminine fashion contaminations in the images below:

cover les modes

Les Modes, Paris, 1915

28872-piere-colombier1918-aviator-la-panne-au-chateau-airplane-breakdown-hprints-com

La Baionnette, 1918

The shirt or blouse for women of this period deserves a closer look too. It had remained popular from the previous decade but  was totally revised in shape. New influences were at work on the imagination of the designers.  The blouse, which  had of course existed for decades (since the 1850s to be precise) now also became an interesting mix of feminine and masculine.

Premet, 1914 L.M.

Les Modes, Paris, 1914

The collar was wide and kept well open, supported beneath by the stiff collar of jacket or coat. When worn with a light fabric dress only it was probably starched stiff and well ironed into shape.

E.L.Kirchner,Erna e Gelda, 1913c

E.L.Kirchner, Erna and Gelda, Germany,  1913

The earlier blouse was distinguished by its femininity denoted by plenty of lace and ruffles. The neck was closed in as it was not proper to show skin during the day.

hairstyles

Journal des Demoiselles, Paris, 1900c

At the same time though, it must be noted that a new kind of female was emerging, the educated middle class young woman who worked. She was more likely to wear a ‘masculine’ style shirt + tie. She was after all claiming her new space in a male centered society.

Mrs Gray s group,1909,McCord mus

Female student,s 1909, Canada

By 1914

Lewis, 1914 L.M.

Les Modes, Paris, 1914

The new blouse was not mimicking men’s fashion. It was taking its linearity and transposing it into the feminine sphere. A perfect blend to represent the new generation of women to emerge from a devastating war, when for the first time they will be expected to ‘wear the trousers’ in a Europe that will have lost most of its young men.

camicia pizzo di Vernon, Scandinavia, 1915-17c

Vernon lace blouse, 1915-17c, Scandinavia