Archives for posts with tag: fashion textiles

journal des dames et des modes, moda femminile,1913

Journal des Dames et des Modes, Paris, 1913

This post wants to investigate the ‘rise’ (literally) in fashion of the collar for women during the period 1913-18. As we saw in the last post, by 1914 the negative effects of the war had driven French fashion designers to invent a new style and to promote it assiduously in the hope of reviving interest,  sales and more importantly, an industry which gave work to 1000s of people.

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La Baionnette, 1916

The new  war silhouette, with its full but short skirt was young and dynamic, cheeky yet elegant .  Corsets had practically been forgotten, replaced by more comfortable brassieres. The waistline positioned slightly above natural level. The collar of coats, jackets and blouses became a new focal point: rising up high to frame the neck, elongating the line from head to bust. The new haircuts – kiss curls framing the face while the long tresses were pulled up high behind the head to look like they had been cut (that was only happening in the most bohemian of circles around 1915).

Paquin, manteau de ville, 1915

Les Modes, Paris, 1915

These high rise collars were particularly suitable for winter fashions. They stood high thanks to a stiff lining or, as we can see above, thickened by the addition of fur. They framed the face perfectly and kept the neck warm.

They remained popular for several years.

Alvaro Guevara,Mrs Fairbairn Nancy Cunnard,1919,NGV Melbourne

Alvaro Guerara, Mrs Fairbairn (Nancy Cunnard), 1919, N.G.A. Melbourne, Australia

There was something masculine in this way of pulling the collar up around the ears, maybe yet another influence from uniforms to be seen everywhere in Europe during those years. The heavy, thick wool greatcoats buttoned right up and worn with the collar turned up for extra protection from wind and rain.

australian soldier, WW I

Australian soldier, WW I

WAAC army auxiliary corps, greatcoat wiith fur collar

WAAC  – female army auxiliary  corps, WW I,  in wool greatcoat with fur collar

More masculine/feminine fashion contaminations in the images below:

cover les modes

Les Modes, Paris, 1915

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La Baionnette, 1918

The shirt or blouse for women of this period deserves a closer look too. It had remained popular from the previous decade but  was totally revised in shape. New influences were at work on the imagination of the designers.  The blouse, which  had of course existed for decades (since the 1850s to be precise) now also became an interesting mix of feminine and masculine.

Premet, 1914 L.M.

Les Modes, Paris, 1914

The collar was wide and kept well open, supported beneath by the stiff collar of jacket or coat. When worn with a light fabric dress only it was probably starched stiff and well ironed into shape.

E.L.Kirchner,Erna e Gelda, 1913c

E.L.Kirchner, Erna and Gelda, Germany,  1913

The earlier blouse was distinguished by its femininity denoted by plenty of lace and ruffles. The neck was closed in as it was not proper to show skin during the day.

hairstyles

Journal des Demoiselles, Paris, 1900c

At the same time though, it must be noted that a new kind of female was emerging, the educated middle class young woman who worked. She was more likely to wear a ‘masculine’ style shirt + tie. She was after all claiming her new space in a male centered society.

Mrs Gray s group,1909,McCord mus

Female student,s 1909, Canada

By 1914

Lewis, 1914 L.M.

Les Modes, Paris, 1914

The new blouse was not mimicking men’s fashion. It was taking its linearity and transposing it into the feminine sphere. A perfect blend to represent the new generation of women to emerge from a devastating war, when for the first time they will be expected to ‘wear the trousers’ in a Europe that will have lost most of its young men.

camicia pizzo di Vernon, Scandinavia, 1915-17c

Vernon lace blouse, 1915-17c, Scandinavia

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 shrimp print cotton wax Vlisco, Holand 2009cwaxcotton, Vlisco, Holand 2011cshrimp print cotton wax Vlisco, Holand 2009c

FASHIONARCHAEOLOGY  has a thing about African textiles. A deep-rooted fascination (which leads to compulsive buying of textiles a/o clothing made of it). Why I love them so much? I would start by saying that I find them “exotic”…different from what surrounds me, different from the prevailing culture of textiles and dress I live in on a daily basis. The fact that my craving for African textiles emerges as the spring turns to summer has to be significant . Although I also like to wear the odd bit of African print in the middle of winter to purposely jar with the muted sombre tones of winter clothing.

So, back to exoticism and the magical unknown. Here are some Africa/fashion/textiles/art related images that I have been contemplating.

First thing: Yinka Shonibare MBE      British artist of Nigerian origins

Yinka Shonibare MBE artist self portrait (after warhol) 1

 He too is obsessed with african textiles. In fact I should be more precise he is, like myself, interested in what are called “wax” in jargon. But in his case this “obsession” makes far more sense. In this self-portrait he has super imposed a photo of himself and a piece of african fabric – yes quite odd but as he explains in his own words he is investigating a very peculiar african heritage.

“In 1990 I developed another way of questioning ideas about cultural authenticity. I started to use “African” fabric purchased from Brixton Market in my work. Batik, which is commonly known as “African” fabric, has its origins in Indonesia and is industrially produced in Holland and Manchester for export to Africa where it is made into traditional dress. The adoption of the fabric, particularly in West Africa, has led to the development of local industries which also manufacture fabrics. . . . In my own practice, I have used the fabrics as a metaphor for challenging various notions of authenticity both in art and identity.”

—Yinka Shonibare (London, 1996) from Met museum NY  2009 exhibition on Africa Textiles

“Wax” textiles are not african at all and if you visit the website of a textile company called Vlisco in Holland www.vlisco.com you can read up about the origins of this brilliantly fake product. By the early 1800s european traders (ok colonialist exploiters) had tapped into a key market in Africa – dress textiles. Industrialization had become a reality in northern Europe, cotton was being spun, woven and printed in a flash and it was cheap. The cunning plan was to observe local african traditions (beginning to be seriously challenged by colonialist culture) and re-elaborate them to produce a new tradition. These manufacturers, with the aid of clever agents across Africa, soon reinvented local textiles and dress habits. Nearly 200 years later and this type of textile is still going strong . Over time it has  developed its own subculture. Different patterns with specific meanings attributed to them in different areas. Some are obvious references to contemporary culture, for example the graduation print below which speaks about the quest for bettering the self, the need for education and the pride in achievement.

graduation/education design, printed wax cotton, Vlisco, Holland Vlisco wax

The two prints below are more conceptual. They are abstract shapes of primitive strength and strong vibrant shades suitable for the scorching sun of west Africa. At the same time they also, somehow work up the “native” heritage (or myth of the real africa ). the point is they did not exist before colonialism…

1080_0_1c3421ea-7ed5-4aa1-bc08-7146c980a570_125_165 wax cotton Vlisco Holland Vlisco wax

And to finish this first post (more to follow) on Africa and its invented textile/fashion/art cultures here are two amazing pieces from Yinka Shonibare

Yinka Shonibare, photo, fake death picture (the death of Chatterton - Henry Wallis) 2011

Fake death picture (the death of Chatterton – Henry Wallis) 2011

Yinka Shonibare, photo, the sleep of reason produces monsters (america) 2008

The sleep of reason produces monsters (America) 2008